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Biology Review Quiz

For 10-25 --> 11-27

by ???????

 

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What are two characteristics unique to living organisms? (Heridation and re-formation)

What is an: Element? Molecule? Compound? Atom? (element - most basic forms of matter found naturally; atom is smallest representation of an element; molecule is a specific combination of atoms; compound is a mixture of elements.)

What defines an Atom? (The number of Protons)

What are Isotopes? (A form of an element with a non-usual number of neutrons.)

What is a Radioactive Isotope? (An isotope which randomly decomposes.)

What are two commonly used bonds and how do they differ? (Hydrogen and

What are the names for two ways to represent a molecule? (Ball and Stick; Space Filler.)

What would make a molecule neutral? (An equal number of Protons (+) and Electrons (-).)

What is a Partial Positive Charge?

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2 --> 9-8-04

What is a Polar Covalent Bond?

Why is water unable to dissolve oil?

How does a Hydrogen Bond work? Also, is it only from one Hydrogen to another?

Which kind of bonds does Water use?

What is a chemical reaction?

What is a Functional Group?

What is the makeup of a Hydroxyl? Carboxyl? Amino? Phosphate?

What are the two cell types and which types of organisms use each?

What is the approximate length of each?

What is a major theory explaining why cells are so small?

What is a Membrane and what two compounds is it mostly composed of?

What is a hydrocarbon?

What is a cholesterol and is it hydrophilic?

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3

All Organelles have lipid bi-layer. True or False?

What are 7 functions of proteins? (Hint: S.C.I.E.N.C.E. = Signal Transduction; Cell to cell recognition; Intercellular joining; Enzymes; traNsport; Cytoskeleton; Extra-cellular matrix.)

What is a protein? (A chain of amino-acids.)

Is a lipid a polymer?

Carbon always has 4 bonds. True or False? (T)

What is dehydration synthesis? (When an oxygen from one molecule and a oxygen-hydrogen from another join -- forming a water molecule which separates from the two molecules, thereby joining the two molecules. {Hence the name "de-hydration" = taking water out.})

What is a peptide bond?

What is the Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary Structures refer to? (Primary = sequence of amino acids; Secondary = Shape; Tertiary = interactions between different parts of the protein; Quarternary = All the different shapes present and where they sit in relation to one another.)

What are the two types of Secondary structure? (Alpha-Helixal {8} and Beta-Sheet {/\/\\/\/\/}.)

What is a Collagen?

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4

What is an Integral Protein? (A protein which sits inside the plasma {cell} membrane.)

What is Freeze Fracture? And what did it prove? (Freeze Fracture was when a cell was frozen and then cracked open. One could see integral proteins sticking out of oneside, and the corresponding holes on the other side. It proved that the proteins didn't sandwich the plasma membrane, as was previously thought.)

What are Carbohydrates, glycoproteins, and Glycolipid?

What is a Peripheral Protein? (A protein which sits on the outside of the plasma membrane.)

In which ways will an object attached to the membrane, like a protein, move? (Laterally <--->, but it will not flip.)

What is Denaturation? (When a protein loses its shape {due to factors like being over-heated}.)

What do Chaperones refer to (in the biological sense)? (They "naturize" proteins; they give them their proper shape so that they can function.)

What is a substrate?

What do enzymes do? (Enzymes are proteins which speed up natural processes.)

Enzymes do not get used up in the chemical reaction. True or False? (True.)

What is an Inhibitor and what are the two types?

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5

What kinds of things go into and out of the cell? (Nutrients go in; Waste and other material goes out.)

What are the two ways that a molecule can enter the cell?

What type of molecules will use each of the two entranceways?

In short, what is the difference between active and passive transport?

What is diffusion?

What does “Solute” refer to?

What is Equilibrium?

What is the Concentration Gradient? And what does it mean to go “down” it?

What is Osmosis?

What is a Hypertonic and a Hypotonic solution? (and Isotonic?)

Facilitated Diffusion is a type of Active Transport. True or False?

What is Simple Diffusion?

What are the two types of transport proteins?

What is a “binding site”?

Channels will allow anything to pass through. True or False?

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6

1) What is “Transport” and what are the two types?

2) What is the difference between the two types?

3) What are the two ways that something can be transported in passive called?

4) What are the two types of protein active transport?

5) What does it mean to go “down the gradient”?

6) What does ADP stand for and where is it found?

7) Active transport is perfomed by which type of protein?

8) What is CoTransport and what is Antiport?

9) What are physiological pumps?

10) What are the three forms of endocytosis?

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7

What is Endocytosis?

What are the three types of Endocytosis and describe each one?

Vesicles formed have a bi-lipid layer. True or False? (True.)

What are the two types of electron microscopes? (Scanning & Electron-mirco-graph.)

What are the Pros and Cons of each? (Scanning can't penetrate the cell; Electron-mirco-graph is only 2D.)

How are centrifuges used to study cells?

What is a Supernatant? (The liquid in the top part of the test tube after being centrifuged {the "pellet" is the bottom part}.)

What are the two functions of a nucleus? **

What is Chromatin?

What is the name for the membrane that surrounds the nucleus?

That membrane has two lipid bi-layers. True or False? (True.)

What is the Peri-Nuclear Space?

What is the Pore-complex? (The pores in the nuclear membane.)

What is the Nucleolus? (A more compact part of the nucleus; this is where ??? are made.)

What is the Nuclear Matrix and the Nuclear Lamina?

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8

What does Rough E.R. and Smooth E.R. refer to and why? (The Rough E.R.

What happens in smooth E.R. also happens in rough E.R. True or false?

3 things which take place in the smooth e.r.? **

What are Ribosomes?

3 Functions of the Rough E.R.? **

What is a “bound” ribosome, and what is its counterpart?

All cells have ribosomes. True or False?

What are the two sections or a Ribosome called?

What is the chemical composition of ribosomes? **

Bound ribosomes’ proteins are sent out of the cell. True or False?

Golgi are not connected. True or False?

What is the name for the unit that travels around the golgi?

How are the above made?

What 4 functions does a golgi have?

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9

How big are lysosomes?

What do they do?

Lysosomes have an acidic PH of 4.5. True or False?

What is Autophagy?

What do lysosomes look like under a microscope?

What does a Peroxisome do?

What is Catalase?

What is the difference between Cytoplasm and Cytosol?

It’s referred to as the “powerhouse” of the Cell? And, why?

What shape are the “powerhouses”?

How many membranes do they have? And what are they like?

What are Cristae and what is the Matrix?

Are there ribosomes inside the Powerhouse?

What are the three ways by which ATP if formed?

What is a “nucleide region”?

What is one very noticeable difference between a plant cell and an animal cell?

What is the cell wall made of?

Sugars are connected with which type of bond?

What is the chemical difference between starch and glucose?

What are Plasmodesmata?

What do chloroplasts do?

Where does photosynthesis take place?

What is the name of the green chemical which is vital for photosynthesis to take place?

Chloroplasts have two smooth membranes. True or False?~

The stroma is what and surrounds the____?

Where does the light reaction take place?

Does it need light?

Producing sugars in the chloroplasts is known as what?

Where does the dark reaction take place?

What is a Hydrolitic Enzyme?

What is pyruvate?

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go get em!

 

 

 

 

Bio 101

Review

from 10-27-04 --> 11-?-04

Read pages:

215-222; 234-top of 238; mid 239 - 245; 247 - top of 254; bottom of 255 - 266; 269-284. = 50
7 4 6 7 11 15 =

 

QUIZ:

1) What is the chemical composition of glucose?

2) Where does the light reaction take place and what does it form?

3) What is a Tonoplast and where is it found?

4) What is the Cytoskeleton? Where is it found? And, what does it do?

5) What are cilia and flagella?

6) What is a microtubule made up of?

7) Is a microfilament hollow?

8) What are the three types of intercellular joining?

9) A gluteoprotien is mostly glucose or protein?

10) What is collagen?

11) What are integrens?

Quiz:

1) What is a Genome?

2) What is the shape of a DNA strand in prokaryotes?

3) What is a Chromosome?

4) How many chromosomes do humans have?

5) How many cells do reproductive human cells (gametes) have?

6) What is a somatic cell?

7) What is a Chromatid?

8) What is the narrow region in the center of a chromosome called, and what does it do?

9) What is the difference between a Genome and Chromatin?

10) Describe the different phases of mitosis.

Quiz:

1) What happens during Prophase?

2) What is the next phase and what happens during it?

3) What are michotic spindles?

4) Where are the chromosomes during metaphase?

5) What is the next phase and what happens during it?

6) What happens during telophase?

7) What happens during cytokensis?

8) What is the area of “pinching in” called?

9) What replaces this pinching in plant cells?

10) How do kinetochore microtubules “pull” in the chromosomes?

11) Describe the process of meiosis and how it differs from mitosis.

 

Quiz:

1) What is a Zygote? (A fertilized Egg.)

2) What is bacteria reproduction like?

3) Who is the father of modern genetics? (Mendell)

4) What is a “true breed”? (A group in a species which only produces identical offspring {at least in regard to one characteristic}.)

5) What does “F” represent in genetics? (

6) What did initial studies with cross-breeding show?

7) What was the ration Mendel discovered, and explain it. (3:1...)

8) What is Phenotype and Genotype? (Phenotype refers to an organism's appearance, how its genes are expressed; Genotype refers to what is encoded in the subject's genes.)

9) How is a recessive gene represented? (lower case letter, usually of the Dominant gene. E.g. W = White; w = pink.)

Quiz:

1) What is meant by a dominant and recessive gene?

2) What is meant by a homozygous genotype?

3) What is meant by a monohybrid cross?

4) What is the name for the chart that is commonly used in genetics to demonstrate the variety in offspring?

Quiz:

1) What is incomplete dominance?

2) What is co-dominance?

Quiz:

1) What does allele mean?

2) Explain the relationships between the different blood types.

3) What is a pleotropic effect?

4) With which shape are men and women represented in a genetics chart?

5) What is the difference in genotype between a male and a female?

6) What do the symbols & & % represent?

 

Quiz:

1) What is the scientific name for fruitflies and who was the person that experimented with them?

2) What major genetic breakthrough did he discover?

3) What does “Wild type” and “Mutant type” refer to?

4) What is a “Carrier”?

5) What is a “pedigree”?

Quiz:

1) What is an “autosomal gene”?

2) What does Di-hybrid mean?

3) What is “independent assortment”?

4) What is crossing over?

5) What is the relationship between crossing over and an allele’s position on the chromosome?

6) What is a “recombinant form”?

7) What is “non-disjuction” and a common example of it?

8) What are the 4 types of chromosome alterations?

 


 

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